Upper Mississippi River Restoration Program

Upper Mississippi River Restoration Program

Long Term Resource Monitoring


LTRM Sampling Design and Statistics

Aquatic Vegetation
Water Quality


The Long Term Resource Monitoring (LTRM) sampling design and statistics web pages describe LTRM sampling designs and present design-based methods for estimating status and trends from LTRM monitoring data. Design-based estimation methods rely on properties of the sampling design, and therefore are typically viewed as less subjective than estimates from statistical models. The following link leads to web pages that provide technical guidance for estimating means and temporal trends using LTRM data:

The following links provide background information on LTRM sampling designs and analyses that may be helpful when estimating means and temporal trends:

The following links cover statistical topics not strictly associated with design-based estimation:


Contact: Questions or comments may be directed to Brian Gray, LTRM statistician, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, La Crosse, Wisconsin, at brgray@usgs.gov.

Quick links
USGS contacts
Field Stations
Field Station contacts
Reports and Publications
Strategic Plan 2010-2014
Status and Trends Report 2008


Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and Notices

Take Pride in America logo USA.gov logo U.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey

Page Last Modified: April 3, 2018 US Army Corps of Engineers USGS Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center US Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Environmental Protection Agency U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service Minnesota DNR Wisconsin DNR Iowa DNR Illinois Natural History Survey Missouri DC